Madeleine Albright skal ha sagt at dagens mennesker forstår og håndterer det 21. århundres teknologier med det 20. århundres tankesett gjennom det 19. århundres institusjoner.
Lederen for World Economic Forum, Klaus Schwab, tar opp dette i sin nye bok om den 4. industrielle revolusjon [ref].
Basert på mange diskusjoner og analyser peker han der på fire nøkkelområder for å komme ut av uføret:
- Fokuser på systemnivået og systemtenkning, – ikke teknologi.
- Myndiggjør, – ikke overstyr.
- Bevisst utforming, – ikke ta det som det faller seg.
- Verdibevissthet er ingen plage.
Alle fire har relevans i utdanningssektoren. Her er den engelske sammenfatningen:
Systems, not technologies:
It is tempting to focus on technologies themselves, when what really matters are the systems that deliver well-being. With political will, investment and cooperation across stakeholders, new technologies can enable better-performing systems to be put in place; without them, new technologies could make existing systems worse.
Empowering, not determining:
It is tempting to think that technological change is impossible to control or direct and there is nothing we can do about technologies being able to influence behaviour.
We should instead value human decision-making and agency, designing systems that harness new technologies to give people more choice, opportunities, freedom and control over their lives. This is particularly important given the ways in which emerging technologies advance the prospect of machines that can decide and act without human input, and influence our behaviour in both overt and subtle ways.
By design, not by default:
It is tempting to dismiss any attempt to shape social and political systems as hubristic and doomed to failure, given their complexity. But we should not resign ourselves to the inevitability of default options.
Design thinking – particularly employing the techniques and philosophy of human-centred design – as well as systems thinking approaches can help us to understand the structures that guide the world and appreciate how new technologies may shift systems into new configurations.
Values as a feature, not a bug:
It is tempting to see technologies as mere tools, capable of being used for good or ill but value-neutral in themselves. In reality, all technologies implicitly have values baked into them, from the initial idea to how they are developed and deployed.
We should recognize this and debate values at all stages of innovation, not just when they hurt someone with a voice.