Nøkkelformulering fra Snyder, Sean: The Simple, the Complicated, and the Complex: Educational Reform Through the Lens of Complexity Theory. OECD Education Papers [PDF]
Guiding principles from Australia’s Learning to Learn project Initiated in 1999, Learning to Learn was implemented in 77 schools and preschools in South Australia. It was designed to respond to concerns that prior attempts had led only to incremental improvement rather than the desired transformational change of a systemic culture. The principles below are illustrative of a whole system lens applied to reform.
- Transformation rather than incremental improvement is needed;
- A catalyst or leader is required to trigger the development of partnerships between stakeholders as a basis for achieving a change;
- Complex problems need complex solutions and can come from the local level;
- A sense of vocation constitutes a motivational resource for teachers in the context of education;
- Learning comes through trust and acceptance of risk;
- Reflection on deeply held worldviews and a questioning of identity, not just administrative change, is needed for sustainable benefit;
- Change and uncertainty are ubiquitous and form the backdrop for transformation;
- Sustainable change comes only through responsibility taken at a local level, not through imposition.
Further, the programme avoided:
- Excessive formalism and quantification;
- Seeing planning as a useful activity in itself;
- An institutional view of “human resources”, focusing rather on people and reinforcing professionalism;
- Seeing leadership as about authority, focusing instead on quality relationships;
- Centralist control typical of bureaucratic and managerial thinking.
Source: Goldspink, C. (2007). doi: 10.1177/1741143207068219, adapted from Foster (2001).